The wrong assessments of ancient Near East also betray historians, sociologists and philosophers.
Philosophy and conceptual religion did not begin with the foundation of the Greek philosophy or the raising of the Chinese or Indic religion, around the sixth century before Christ.
There are archaeological evidences for philosophy and conceptual religion in ancient Near East from at least 7000 before Christ in Kurdish.
One of the premier sociologists, the America Robert Bellah in a recent book, “Religion in Human Evolution” tries to identify when religion emerged and how it changed through the centuries.
He ends with the Axial Age of the sixth century before Christ, focusing on ancient India, Israel, Greece and China.
Bellah identifies three stages: enactive, symbolic and conceptual. Basic rituals are part of the first, then myth and legend, and finally ethical and theological reasoning. The conceptual stage is one related to the Axial Age, roughly around the sixth century BC, when Plato and other thinkers founded Greek philosophy and the Buddha and other teachers raised Indic religion to a whole new conceptual level, according to Bellah.
From a Kurdish perspective in the book Bible Discovered, I made it clear that the modern sociology and philosophy are based on wrong assessments concern the early culture, history and ethnography of the mankind.
The very notion of the Axial, conceptual stage did not begin with the foundation of the Greek philosophy or the raising of the Chinese or Indic religion, around the sixth century before Christ.
The world’s most influential philosophies were founded at least 7000 before Christ in the ancient Near East in Kurdish language. The Axial symbols (Coptic Cross and Maltese Cross ) in the sense of “religious profession and act, mass, mission” occur on ancient Kurdish care bowls and dishes from 4000 BC; see the cover of Bible Discovered and pg. 104-105; also see under the well-known ancient Near East terms Din-ger-ki, Din-ker-ki, Ul-maš-ki.
The ancient Near East cuneiform sign (maš) means “act, mass, mission”.
The ancient Near East axis, axial, cuneiform sign (dinger, dinker) means “religious profession, cardinal; lawmaker”; from the root din “religion” and ger, ker “create, creator”. So din-ker is the origin of the word car-din-al “religious profession”.
These also make assured that the contemporary assumption – the origins of religious profession date from the time when Christians were recognized in the Church as followers after perfection in the practice of religious life, – is not real and should be corrected in: “the origins of religious profession date from the holy ancient Kurdish time when believers were recognized in the Kerk (Church) as followers after perfection in the practice of social life”, since religion was law and morality”.
April 3, 2012
Hamíit Qliji Bérai